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Introduction & Purpose  

Job safety analysis (JHA) is “a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur.” So, the basic way to get done job safely are:-

  • Break a job down into the various tasks it involves
  • Identify hazards associated with each task

Job safety analysis (JHA) mainly “focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment.” The goal of JHA is to identify and then control hazards before they do cause harm. 

What’s a Hazard?

A hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm. Typically, this means something that can cause an injury or illness.

JHA document has an excellent appendix that lists various categories of hazards. We’ve duplicated that information for you below.



Hazard Descriptions

Chemical (toxic)

A chemical that exposes a person by absorption through the skin, inhalation, or through the bloodstream that causes illness, disease, or death. The amount of chemical exposure is critical in determining hazardous effects. Check Safety Data Sheets (SDS) and/or for chemical hazard information.

Chemical (flammable)

A chemical that, when exposed to a heat ignition source, results in combustion. Typically, the lower a chemical’s flash point and boiling point, the more flammable the chemical. Check SDS for flammability information.

Chemical (corrosive)

A chemical that, when it comes into contact with skin, metal, or other materials, damages the materials. Acids and bases are examples of corrosives.

Explosion(chemical reaction)

Explosions caused by chemical reactions.

Explosion (over pressurization)

Sudden and violent release of a large amount of gas/energy due to a significant pressure difference, such as rupture in a boiler or compressed gas cylinder.

Electrical (shock/short circuit)

Contact with exposed conductors or a device that is incorrectly or inadvertently grounded, such as when a metal ladder comes into contact with power lines.60Hz alternating current (common house current) is very dangerous because it can stop the heart.

Electrical (fire)

Use of electrical power that results in electrical overheating or arcing to the point of combustion or ignition of flammables, or electrical component damage.

Electrical [static/electrostatic discharge (ESD)]

The moving or rubbing of wool, nylon, other synthetic fibers, and even flowing liquids can generate static electricity. This creates an excess or deficiency of electrons on the surface of material that discharges (spark) to the ground resulting in the ignition of flammables or damage to electronics or the body’s nervous system.

Electrical (loss of power)

Safety-critical equipment failure as a result of loss of power.

Ergonomics (strain)

Damage of tissue due to overexertion (strains and sprains) or repetitive motion.

Ergonomics (human error)

A system design, procedure, or equipment that is tends to lead to human error.(For example, a switch that goes up to turn something off instead of down).

Excavation (collapse)

Soil collapse in a trench or excavation as a result of improper or inadequate shoring. Soil type is critical in determining the hazard likelihood.

Fall (slips and trips)

Conditions that result in falls (impacts) from height or traditional walking surfaces (such as slippery floors, poor housekeeping, uneven walking surfaces, exposed ledges, etc.)


Temperatures that can cause burns to the skin or damage to other organs. Fires require a heat source, fuel, and oxygen.

Mechanical/vibration (chaffing/fatigue)

Vibration that can cause damage to nerve endings, or material fatigue that results in a safety-critical failure. (Examples are abraded slings and ropes, weakened hoses and belts.)

Mechanical failure

Self explanatory; typically occurs when devices exceed designed capacity or are inadequately maintained.


 Skin, muscle, or body part exposed to crushing, caught-between, cutting, tearing, shearing  items or equipment.


Noise levels (>85 dBA 8 hr TWA) that result in hearing damage or inability to communicate safety-critical information.

Radiation (ionizing)

Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutral particles, and X-rays that cause injury (tissue damage) by ionization of cellular components.

Radiation (non-ionizing)

Ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and microwaves that cause injury to tissue by thermal or
photochemical means.

Struck-by (mass acceleration)

Accelerated mass that strikes the body causing injury or death. (Examples are falling objects and projectiles.)

Struck against

Injury to a body part as a result of coming into contact of a surface in which action was initiated by the person. (An example is when a screwdriver slips.)

Extreme temperatures (heat/cold)

Temperatures that result in heat stress, exhaustion, or metabolic slow down such as hypothermia.


Lack of lighting or obstructed vision that results in an error or other hazard.

Weather conditions (snow/rain/wind/ice)


Benefits of Performing a JHA

Performing JHAs at the workplace should lead to:

  • Safer work procedures
  • Fewer injuries and illnesses
  • Lower injury- and illness-related expenses
  • Increased worker productivity
  • An increased awareness of how to train employees to perform their jobs safely

For which Jobs JHA should need to be perform?

It’s a good idea to perform a JHA for any job. However, it’s also a good idea to prioritize some jobs ahead of others.

Considering performing JHAs first for jobs that: 

  • Have a high injury and illness rate–at your location or in the industry in general
  • Have the potential to cause severe injuries and illnesses, even if that’s never happened at your location so far
  • Could lead to a severe injury or illness if only one human error occurred
  • Are  new to your location
  • Have recently changed
  • Are complex


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